Original Research

The lanthanides. Oxidation states and some other features

J. J. Cruywagen
Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif vir Natuurwetenskap en Tegnologie | Vol 3, No 4 | a1090 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/satnt.v3i4.1090 | © 1984 J. J. Cruywagen | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 20 March 1984 | Published: 20 March 1984

About the author(s)

J. J. Cruywagen,, South Africa

Full Text:

PDF (280KB)

Share this article

Bookmark and Share

Abstract

The stabilities of oxidation states +2, +3 and +4 of the lanthanides in solution and in the solid state are discussed in terms of energy cycles. The irregular variation of the third and fourth ionization energies is of decisive importance in determining the relative stabilities of the various oxidation states. Some other features such as electronic configurations and the variation of properties with atomic number and L quantum number are also discussed. Important uses of the elements are mentioned.

Keywords

No related keywords in the metadata.

Metrics

Total abstract views: 924
Total article views: 1578

Reader Comments

Before posting a comment, read our privacy policy.

Post a comment (login required)

Crossref Citations

No related citations found.